This fabric was made on a simple wooden frame loom using wool as the warp yarns and merchandised cotton as the weft yarns. The dark brown wool works best on the loom because of its thickness and so the weaving grooves stand out more. If the loom had additional weft yarns the fabric would become more stable and the yarns wouldn’t be so moveable.
My sample above contains garter and pearl stitches in batches of 5 alternating. Rows 1-6 of knit 5 stitches, pearl 5 stitches, knit 5 stitches and then rows 7-12 pearls 5 stitches, pearl 5 stitches and then pearl 5 stitches. This gives the effect of squares, like a chess board. The knitting was made on 5mm needles; I believe this type of stitch would do itself justice on smaller needles as the stitches would be smaller and neater giving a greater effect.